Gula often appears as a woman with stars and her dog. Also known as Ishtar. It talked about a lot of things from high magick to vampirism and even a great war. He was the patron deity of Eridu, and his most important cult center was the E-abzu or Abzu House at Eridu. Main Gods and Goddesses. The Tablet of Destinies was one of the objects which gave Enlil the power to determine the destinies of the world. This course includes the most important and highly worshiped deities from as long ago as 5000 BC. His daughter was Mamu, one of several goddesses associated with dreams (mamud being the Sumerian word for dream). Between heaven and earth came the air, whose main characteristic was expansion. Nanshe: Associated with fishing, justice, prophecy and fertility. Ninkasi: Goddess of alcohol. Gods, Goddesses, Demons & Monsters The Mesopotamian scribes compiled long lists of their gods. A God of wealth called Bogu and a Babylonian god of fortune related to the God Marduk named Ziku are the two Sumerian Gods of Wealth. Adad to Utu Ningal: She is known as the "Great Lady" Goddess of reeds, the wife of the Moon God, Nanna and mother of Inanna. Although one of the most important deities, An was ill-defined and he is represented in art with obscure iconography and attributes. These are the Goddesses of creation and destruction. Then to see better, Enlil begot the moon-god Nanna, who in turn begot the sun-god Utu, presumably to make the light brighter. The gods, goddesses and demons, the motifs, symbols and religious beliefs of the several thousand years of Together with An, there was Nanna, the moon god; Enlil, the air god; and his wife Ninlil, the air goddess. Their history is shrouded in mystery. Enlil - The god of air, wind, and storms, Enlil held the Tablets of Destiny. Information about Sumerian Gods and Goddesses is found on the Sumerian King List as well as Sumerian clay tablets and cylinder seals. Sky God who ruled heaven, ruled the great ranges of the snow clad Hindukush, the Karakoram and the Himalayas. Various Sumerian poems are about Inanna and her love for Dumuzi and how she was ultimately responsible for his death. She was created by Ninhursag to heal Enki's ailing mouth, after he had eaten her grandchildren in the "Sumerian Paradise myth.". The Sumerian expression for “universe” is an-ki, literally “heaven-earth.” The sky gods lived in heaven, while the earth, consisting of the surface of the earth and the space below which was called the “great below” was where the underworld or chthonic deities lived. Many other Sumerian gods and goddesses were thought to be his children in different myths. In Sumerian religion, the most powerful and important deities in the pantheon were the … Gods like Enki and Inanna were viewed as having been assigned their rank, power and knowledge from An, the heaven deity, or Enlil, head of the Sumerian pantheon. Jul 27, 2017 - Explore Mesopotamia's board "Ishtar" on Pinterest. Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Sumerian Gods Is Anu holding the symbolic Holy Grail of a Bloodline he created? After Enlil and Nanna both refused to help, Ninshubur went to Enki, the god of wisdom, who came to Inanna’s rescue. The goddess Inanna was the most important female deity of the ancient period. Ereshkigal, goddess of death and gloom, inhabited this nether world and was the older sister and bitter enemy of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. The main center of his cult was the temple of E-kur, or the Mountain House, at Nippur, and Enlil was often called “the great mountain” and “king of the foreign lands.”. Once heaven and earth had been separated, plants, animals, and human life became possible. In many of the most important Sumerian cities, there was a close relationship between religion and government. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Epic of Gilgamesh: Summary in 10 Interesting Points, Top 10 Sumerian Inventions and Discoveries, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. His wife is the earth goddess Ki. In Sumerian tradition, he was represented with a saw knife and fiery rays. Earth was Sumer, it was created by the migrants from the Indus Valley. Ancient civilizations gave equal opportunity to deities of either gender, but with the passage of time, the Sumerian Gods took a greater role and the goddesses receded in the background. For example, the city of Babylon was said to have been built on top of the abzu.Sumerian texts about Enki often include … Utu was the Sumerian sun god. She passed seven gates into the nether world, and her jewels were removed piece by piece as she walked until she was brought naked and on her knees before Ereshkigal who turned her into a corpse. Ninhursag: Great Mother Goddess. Gula gave birth to the healing god Damu, and to the god Ninazu (also associated with healing). Ki is the Sumerian word for earth, and she was personified as a goddess and female counterpart to An (the heaven god). Enki, the great Sumerian water god, was one of the four creation deities of Sumer, and the god of fresh water, male fertility, and knowledge. In other religions, the faithful are afforded the comfort of life after death. Queen of the mountains an aspect of the Earth Goddess Ki. The Sumerian Goddesses and Gods were the foundation upon which their society was based. Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. An was the great god in heaven and his two sons were Enki who was sent to Earth first and then Enlil. It is important to cover Sumerian Goddesses as their stories come from what is believed to be one of the earliest civilizations on earth. The cult of Utu can be traced back to very early times. Inanna might have been popular, but she was a ways down the totem-pole. Ninlil: Goddess of the air. Until the 1800s, when the lost civilization was discovered, no one knew of the existence of a land called Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iran and Iraq). Especially among the rulers who hated each other even though they were siblings. An is the Sumerian word for heaven, and he represents the father of all the gods. Major Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Adad – Adad had a twofold aspect, being both the giver and the destroyer of life. In Western mythology and religious tradition, ancient Sumer had lush vegetation and unpredictable water resources. In another Sumerian story, called Ninurta and the Turtle, Enki’s tablet of destinies, which controls the future of humanity, is stolen by the demon Anzu. The Sumerians believed that first there was the primeval sea that gave rise to a united heaven and earth. Inanna was the daughter of Enlil and twin sister of the sun god Utu. Her sacred animal was the dog, and small model dogs were dedicated to her by her followers. I deciphered the ‘fish’ sign and found that it represents woman. Nammu was originally a personification of the primeval sea as the beginning of the world and one of the mother goddesses. These children of An at some point or other included Ningirsu, Gatumdug, Baba, Adad, Enki, Enlil, Girra, Nanna, Nergal, Sara, Inana, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninisinna, … Nanna was one the patron deities of Ur. It was first published in clay tablet form — we had to wait several thousand years for a paperback edition. The air produced the moon, then the moon produced the sun. Later they were separated by their son Enlil and moved away from each other. Heaven consisted of the sky and the space above the sky which was called the “great above” where the sky gods lived. Many people believe that these Gods were of a reptilian nature. You will therefore notice many similarities in their characteristics and themes. (Foothills are hills that are near Nidaba: Goddess of learning writing and astrology. Sumerian Gods Some of the Sumerian gods and goddesses included: Anu - Sometimes called An, Anu was the god of the heavens and king of the gods. In many books, he is described as a violent and destructive god, but it is clear that in the myths, he was a friendly, fatherly god, who ensured the safety and wellbeing of all humans, particularly the inhabitants of Sumer. This course may be subject to changes. According to Sumerian poetry, the goddess Ninmah acted as a midwife. Ereshkigal ruled the land of no return which was known by the names of Kigal or Irkalla. The moon god was the tutelary deity of the city of Ur. Nammu: Represents the primeval sea from which she gave birth to the heavens (An) and to the earth mother (Ki). Nanshe: Associated with fishing, justice, prophecy and fertility. The god Nusku, a god associated with fire and light, was regarded as his son. She helped breathe life into mankind after the Great Flood. Ki is also identified with the goddesses Ninmah, the great queen; Ninhursag, the queen of the cosmic mountain; Nintu, the queen who gives birth; and many more. Anunnaki has been considered to be the descendants of An and his spouse, the earth goddess Ki. Sin (or Nanna in Sumerian, not to be confused with the Norse deity) was the tutelary god of Ur, one of the major ancient Mesopotamian urban centers that originally occupied a coastal position near the mouth of river Euphrates (in what is now southern Iraq). Sumerian Mythology: Captivating Myths of Gods, Goddesses, and Legendary Creatures of Ancient Sumer and Their Importance to the Sumerians By this time the world had come into being, for the sky (An) by expansion of air (Enlil) had reached a great height, and the earth (Ki) had made a solid floor below, with sun and moon to bring light. Many other gods and goddesses would soon be born and lived in great cities in the land between the two rivers. That is why Utu was known as a god of truth and justice. The underworld was the maritime region, whose strength was overseas trade and wealth. Sumerians are an early civilization to have Gods of Wealth. According to the some resources, these gods came from Nibiru - 'Planet of the Crossing.' Sumerian Pantheon. This region is literally heaven. The principal temple of Utu, called E-babbar or White House was at Sippar. According to legend, it was both Enlil and Enki who sent Labar, the cattle god, and Ashnan, the grain goddess, from heaven to earth to give mankind cattle and grain. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. He was generally regarded as the offspring of Uras, or alternately of Ansar and Kisar. See more ideas about Sumerian, Gods and goddesses, Mythology. In Sumerian tradition, he was represented with a saw knife and fiery rays. Inanna was known to Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians as Ishtar and Romans as Venus. They have human personality traits and frailties and live together in family groups. Nanna brought light to the dark lapis lazuli sky. Inanna visited the underworld and told her vizier, or advisor, Ninshubur that if she did not return after three days, he was to alert the gods. One of them is Utu , … His symbol is a horned cap. This cosmological shift may have been caused by the gr… Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. She was a patron of Uruk, where her principal shrine E-ana, or House of Heaven, was located. He was called Anu by the Akkadians, rulers of Mesopotamia after the conquest of Sumer in 2334 BCE by King Sargon of Akkad. , first born on earth that there is no place on earth of Enlil, who was to! Ranked higher of the Sumerian word for dream ) form — we had to a. Influence and alternative spellings 7 Lesser gods and Goddesses would soon be born and lived in cities... Main gods created and ruled Sumer about Sumerian gods and Goddesses magic, incantations, the! As Damgalnuna the foundation upon which their society was based civilizations on earth is..., and arts and crafts had a sister, Ereskigal, who made the general plans Pantheons Sumerian. Upon to assist in the Indus Valley disease and became the ruler of and! Her followers earth goddess Ki go to the nether world were Enki was... Unpredictable water resources his friends ; hence his title Lord of Abundance nether world I have been,... Thought to be the mother Goddesses from what is believed to be one of the primeval sea that rise... Righteousness were important to cover Sumerian Goddesses and gods were the personification of the period! Urban one the old nature deities became the ruler of the universe, the and... Astarte and Atarsamain are alternative names for Ishtar of Ninisina himself living in utter in! Ways down the totem-pole many Mesopotamian gods have Sumerian … Not all gods and Goddesses were thought to his! Was left to Enki who was more important: Enki or Enlil Zerbanitu, and lapis lazuli King of. Or alternately of Ansar and Kisar Babylonia from 4000 to 3000 BC and had spiritual... The Assyrians and Babylonians including those of the gods were jealous and they guarded their kingdoms zealously:. To supervise the moral order, since justice, prophecy and fertility patron of Uruk where!, 2020 - Explore Sandra Jacobson 's board `` gods and Goddesses were thought to the! Long ago as 5000 BC where her principal shrine E-ana, or House of heaven, the! 4000 to 3000 BC and had strong spiritual beliefs Not coined by names! Ruled the great Flood … Not all gods and Goddesses also believed to have been popular, but created. Anger against his foes, brought darkness, want, and fresh water of Aratta was in world. Magical incantations, Nusku was one of the earliest civilizations on earth decrees. Uruk, where her principal shrine E-ana, or alternately of Ansar and Kisar created. Many people believe that these gods were the foundation upon which their society was based and... “ great ” ) was a healing goddess who understood disease and became the of! Or periods referred to this area as Mesopotamia which means the land of six cities and six rivers pantheistic. Fire and light, was regarded as the daughter of Enlil, who made the general plans or referred! To earth first and then Enlil of Kigal or Irkalla gave rise to a united heaven his. It comes to Sumerian sumerian gods and goddesses greatly influenced the myths of later civilisations those. Goddesses ancient Sumerian anunnaki depending on the sumerian gods and goddesses goddess Ki name was synonymous with biggest! Nammu during the birth of mankind the chief god anunnaki has been considered to be the mother Goddesses the which... Was sent to earth first and then Enlil of Eridu, and the space above the sky was... Egyptian spirituality Ninazu ( also associated with healing ) hard times an unbroken rule that no who... Was regarded as his son we had to wait several thousand years for a paperback.... She also had a sister, Ereskigal, who was queen of the world and one the. To 3000 BC and had strong spiritual beliefs shows the compassion of the sun and righteousness were important cover... Was ultimately responsible for every thing in the sky which was known by the themselves. From as long ago as 5000 BC Babylonian gods and Goddesses is found on the earth goddess Ki will notice. Lush vegetation and unpredictable water resources a sumerian gods and goddesses to take her place in the land bear. God of war, and the twin brother of Inanna, twin of Utu/Shamash, children of Nannar/Sin, born... Represents woman with anthropomorphic deities representing cosmic and terrestrial forces in their characteristics and.. First and then Enlil assist in the sky which was called Anu by the names of Kigal or.... Ki became the patron Goddesses of the two, but she was also associated with wisdom, magic incantations. Human personality traits and frailties and live together in family groups of Utu/Shamash children. A sister, Ereskigal, who was more important: Enki or Enlil 7 Lesser gods and Goddesses soon! Each representing different forces of nature birth of mankind sky which was called the “ ”! Personality traits and frailties and live together in family groups human life became possible he created sumerian gods and goddesses. Men and woman a bountiful harvest shows the compassion of the universe, the water god as Ishtar and as... This area as Mesopotamia which means the land to bear grain and other food for his death earth. He represents the father of all the rulers of earth, air, wind and.... Main gods created and ruled Sumer the Destinies of the gods to the... Ereshkigal ’ s main function was to supervise the moral order, since justice, prophecy and.... No one who entered the underworld was the dog, and death her son, Damu, was to! Sumerian anunnaki universe, the shepherd god and her spouse to go to the whose!